Endnotes

1 The Scales of Action framework was originally conceptualized by the MIT Office of Sustainability as Scales of Impact. Find out more.

2 IPCC, 2018: Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty [Masson-Delmotte, V., P. Zhai, H.-O. Pörtner, D. Roberts, J. Skea, P.R. Shukla, A. Pirani, W. Moufouma-Okia, C. Péan, R. Pidcock, S. Connors, J.B.R. Matthews, Y. Chen, X. Zhou, M.I. Gomis, E. Lonnoy, T. Maycock, M. Tignor and T. Waterfield (eds.)]. In Press.

3 Weber, S.; Newman, J.; Hill, A., 2017, “Ecological regional analysis applied to campus sustainability performance,” International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, Vol. 18 Issue: 7, pp.974-994.

4 U.N. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, International Decade for Action “Water for Life” 2005-2015.

5 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Transforming Food and Agriculture to Achieve the SDGs, 2018.

6 Maupin, M.A., 2018, Summary of estimated water use in the United States in 2015: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2018-3035, 2 p.

7 Weber, S.; Newman, J.; Hill, A., 2017, “Ecological regional analysis applied to campus sustainability performance,” International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, Vol. 18 Issue: 7, pp.974-994.

8 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Green Infrastructure, Manage Flood Risk, Last updated September 14, 2016.

9 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Stormwater Management and Green Infrastructure Research, Last updated February 15, 2018.

10 State of N.J. Department of Environmental Protection News Release, Benchmark U.S. Geological Survey Study Shows Water Quality Improving in New Jersey, February 27, 2017.

11 U.N. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2018 Revision of World Urbanization Prospects, May 2018.

12 Seto, K.C., et al. 2011, A Meta-Analysis of Global Urban Land Expansion, PlosOne, August 18, 2011.

13 U.S. Census, 2010 Decennial Census.

14 Watson, J.E., et al., “Persistent Disparities between Recent Rates of Habitat Conversion and Protection and Implications for Future Global Conservation Targets,” Conservation Letters, 2016; DOI: 10.1111/conl.12295

15 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office for Coastal Management, Land Cover Change (New Jersey).

16 Lathrop, R.G. and Bognar, J.A., 2016, Changing Landscapes in the Garden State. Center for Remote Sensing and Spatial Analysis, Rutgers University.

17 IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 151 pp.

18 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Last updated October 9, 2018.

19 2012 Update to New Jersey’s Statewide Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory, Michael Aucott, Marjorie Kaplan and Jeanne Herb; Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, March 2015.

20 U.N. Environment Program, Assessing Global Resource Use, December, 3 2017.

21 Kaza, Silpa; Yao, Lisa C.; Bhada-Tata, Perinaz; Van Woerden, Frank. 2018. What a Waste 2.0 : A Global Snapshot of Solid Waste Management to 2050. Urban Development;. Washington, DC: World Bank. © World Bank. License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.

22 The Sustainability Tracking, Assessment and Rating System, Princeton University 2018 Submission.

23 Weber, S.; Newman, J.; Hill, A., 2017, “Ecological regional analysis applied to campus sustainability performance,” International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, Vol. 18 Issue: 7, pp.974-994.